David de Pomerai and Glynn Harrison
The earlier sections of this book have set the scene in terms of mission and listening, introduced the resources found in the authorities of Scripture, tradition and reason, and introduced the voices of homosexual persons reflecting on identity and a dialogue on spirituality and sexuality between two Anglicans of quite different views. This final section returns to a much more technical and academic style. It does so by looking to the work of two Anglican scientists which helps us understand what biology - particularly genetics - and psychology can tell us about homosexuality.
This book is likely to be read by people with a theological background and may be challenging for those who do not have an understanding of science. You may also want to read the contents with a Christian you know who is a scientist, perhaps a doctor or a science teacher.
Both David de Pomerai and Glynn Harrison are working scientists in British universities. They bring their skills to enable us to consider the research which has taken place over recent years in their own fields. As noted in the introduction, Lambeth Conferences and other Instruments have repeatedly requested study of scientific evidence but this has rarely been done in Anglican documents on sexuality. As a result scientific claims are sometimes made by advocates of different theological positions that are difficult to assess. To help in this task, this chapter reviews the literature and its bearing on Christian discussion. David focuses on the possible biological causes of homosexuality in the hope that the scientific research may help answer such questions as to whether or not homosexuality is biologically fixed. Glynn examines the question of whether those who do not wish to experience same sex attraction can experience significant change in their sexual feelings and desires, as claimed by some Christians. Although they are experts in the their respective fields - David is a biologist, specifically a geneticist, while Glynn is a professor of psychiatry, specializing in schizophrenia - neither of them were personally involved in any of the research they report here.
What follows is often highly technical and quite complex. However, as all truth is God’s truth, it is vital that Christians thinking about sexuality be as well informed as they can be about the findings of different scientific studies. It is important to acknowledge, nevertheless, that both David and Glynn are clear that the science they present is not conclusive. Furthermore, even if it were conclusive science, as faithful Anglicans, they do not believe it is for science to have the last and determinative word on how we should then live as Christians or order ourselves as churches. That fact is why this is only one of eight chapters in this book and it is important that its findings are related to the other chapters, particularly those in section two of the book exploring Scripture, tradition and reason.
One of the features of scientific investigation - in contrast to the immediately preceding chapters - is that it seeks to be dispassionate, neutral, objective and impersonal. Some of the language in this chapter may therefore seem to you to be clinical and even dehumanizing. Glynn and David recognize this and it is another of the reasons they believe that, although science has a place, its place is limited and needs to be put alongside the more personal stories found elsewhere in this book.
While some readers will have a good knowledge of science, many will not. The book is designed for those who are more competent in theology than science. David and Glynn therefore begin their sections with an overview of their papers, summarising their main sections and findings. If you do not have a scientific background you may wish simply to read these and then follow up in more detail any sections that particularly interest you. As in all the chapters, the conclusions they reach are their own but we believe their work represents a major contribution to this often neglected aspect of the discussion among Christians and hope it will help you deepen your understanding of the mystery of human sexuality.
With new material being published Dr de Pomerai has updated the material in chapter 8 Part 1.
Biological mechanisms in homosexuality; an update (2007-8)
Due to limited space the book carries abbreviated references - here they are set out in full. They are arranged in alphabetical order and correspond to the numbering in the book.
1. B Bagemihl (1999). Biological exuberance: animal homosexuality and natural diversity. Profile Books, London.
2. J Bailey & R Pillard (1991). A genetic study of male sexual orientation. Archives of General Psychiatry 48, 1089-1096. J Bailey, R Pillard, M Neale & Y Agyei (1993). Heritable factors influence sexual orientation in women. Archives of General Psychiatry 50, 217-223.
3. J Bailey, R Pillard, M Neale & Y Agyei (1993). Heritable factors influence sexual orientation in women. Archives of General Psychiatry 50, 217-223.
4. J Bailey, R Pillard, K Dawood, M Miller, L Farrer, S Trivedi & R Murphy (1999). A family history study of male sexual orientation using three independent samples. Behavior Genetics 29, 79-86.
5. J Bailey, M Dunne & N Martin (2000). Genetic and environmental influences on sexual orientation and its correlates in an Australian twin sample. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 78, 525-536.
6. C Barnard & J Behnke (2006). Behaviour, life history strategies and parasite infection in rodents. In: Micro mammals and macroparasites: from evolutionary ecology tomanagement (eds) S Morand, B Kasnov & R Poulin), pp 475-514; Springer Verlag, Berlin,.
7. P Bearman & H Bruckner (2002). Opposite-sex twins and adolescent same-sex attraction. American Journal of Sociology 107, 1179-1205.
8. H Berglund, P Lindstrom & I Savic (2006). Brain response to putative pheromones in lesbian
women. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 103, 8269-8274.
9. R Blanchard (2004). Quantitative and theoretical analyses of the relation between older brothers
and homosexuality in men. Journal of Theoretical Biology 230, 173-187.
10. R Blanchard (2007). Sex ratio of older siblings in heterosexual and homosexual, right-handed
and non-right-handed men. Archives of Sexual Behavior, in press (published online Dec 22nd
11. R Blanchard & A Bogaert (1996). Homosexuality in men and number of older brothers.
American Journal of Psychiatry 153, 27-31.
12. R Blanchard & A Bogaert (2004). Proportion of gay men who owe their sexual orientation to fraternal birth order: an estimate based on two national probability samples. Amercican Journal of Human Biologyy 16, 151-157.
13. R Blanchard, K Zucker, M Siegelman, R Dickey & P Klassen (1998). The relation of birth order
to sexual orientation in men and women. Journal of Biosocial Sciences 30, 511-519.
14. R Blanchard, J Cantor, A Bogaert, S Breedlove & L Ellis (2006). Interaction of fraternal birth
order and handedness in the development of male homosexuality. Hormones & Behavior 49,
15. D Bobrow & J Bailey (2001). Is male homosexuality maintained via kin selection? Evolution &
Human Behavior 22, 361-368.
16. S Bocklandt, S Horvath, E Vilain & D Hamer (2006). Extreme skewing of X chromosome
inactivation in mothers of homosexual men. Human Genetics 116, 691-696
17. A Bogaert (2003a). Number of older brothers and sexual orientation: new tests and the
attraction /behaviour distinction in two national probability samples. Journal of Personal &
Social Psychology 84, 644-652.
18. A Bogaert (2003b). Interaction of older brothers and sex-typing in the prediction of sexual
orientation in men. Archives of Sexual Behavior 32, 129-134.
19. A Bogaert (2006). Biological versus nonbiological older brothers and men’s sexual orientation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 103, 10771-10774.
20. A Bogaert (2007). Extreme right-handedness, older brothers and sexual orientation in men.
Neuropsychology 21, 141-148.
21. A Bogaert & J Cairney (2004). The interaction of birth order and parental age on sexual
orientation: an examination in two samples. Journal of Biosocial Sciences 36, 19-37.
22. A Bogaert & J Liu (2006). Birth order and sexual orientation in men: evidence for two independent interactions. Journal of Biosocial Sciences 38, 811-819.
23. D Boomsma, A Busjahn & L Peltonen (2002). Classical twin studies and beyond. Nature
Reviews Genetics 3, 872-882.
24. J Brennan & B Capel (2004). One tissue, two fates: molecular genetic events that underlie testis
versus ovary development. Nature Reviews Genetics 5, 509-521.
25. W Byne (1994). The biological evidence challenged. Scientific American 270 (May 1994), 26-31.
26 A Byrd (2007). “Homosexuality is not hard-wired”, concludes Dr. Francis S. Collins, Head of the
Human Genome Project. http://www.narth.com/docs/nothardwired.html
27. A Camperio-Ciani, F Coma & C Capiluppi (2004). Evidence for maternally inherited factors
favouring male homosexuality and promoting female fecundity. Proceedings of the Royal
Society, Biological Sciences, Series B 271, 2217-2221.
28. J Cantor, R Blanchard, A Paterson & A Bogaert (2002). How many gay men owe their sexual
orientation to fraternal birth order? Archives of Sexual Behavior 31, 63-71.
29. C Cederroth, J Pitetti, M Papaiouannou & S Nef (2007). Genetic programs that regulate testicular
and ovarian development. Molecular & Cellular Endocrinology 265/266, 3-9.
30. Council for Responsible Genetics Position Paper (accessed June 2007). Do Genes Determine our
31. K Dawood, R Pillard, C Horvath, W Revelle & J Bailey (2000). Familial aspects of male
homosexuality. Archives of Sexual Behavior 29, 155-163.
32. A De Block & P Adriaens (2004). Darwinizing sexual ambivalence: a new evolutionary
hypothesis of male homosexuality. Philosophical Psychology 17, 59-76.
33. C Dewar (2003). An association between male homosexuality and reproductive success. Medical
Hypotheses 60, 225-232.
34. L Ellis & M Ames (1987). Neurohormonal functioning and sexual orientation: a theory of
homosexuality/heterosexuality. Psychological Bulletin 101, 233-258.
35. L Ellis, B Robb & D Burke (2005). Sexual orientation in United States and Canadian college
students. Archives of Sexual Behavior 34, 569-581.
36.. D Fergusson, L Horwood & A Beautrais (1999). Is sexual orientation related to mental health
problems and suicidality in young people? Archives of General Psychiatry 56, 876-880.
37. M Fraga, E Ballestar. M Paz, S Ropero, F Setien, M Ballestar, D Heine-Suner, J. Cigudosa, M
Urioste, J Benitez, M Boix-Chornet, A Sanchez-Aguilera, C Ling, E Carlsson, P Poulsen, A
Vaag, Z Stephan, T Spector, Y-Z Wu, C Plass & M Esteller (2005). Epigenetic differences arise
during the lifetime of monozygotic twins, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
38. M Frisch & A Hviid (2000). Childhood family correlates of heterosexual and homosexual
marriages: a national cohort study of two million Danes. Archives of Sexual Behavior 35, 533-
39. S Gavrilets & W Rice (2006). Genetic models of homosexuality: generating testable predictions
Proceedings of the Royal Society, Biological Sciences, Series B 273, 3031-3038.
40. L Gooren (2006). The biology of human psychosexual differentiation. Hormones & Behavior 50,
41. L Gooren & F Kruijver (2002). Androgens and male behaviour. Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology 198, 31-40
42. D Hamer, S Hu, V Magnuson, N Hu & A Pattatucci (1993). A linkage between DNA markers on
the X chromosome and male sexual orientation. Science 261, 321-327.
43. J Hare (2007). ‘Neither male nor female’: the case of intersexuality. In: An acceptable sacrifice?
(eds. D Dormor & J Morris), pp. 98-111. SPCK, London.
44. S Hershberger (1997). A twin registry study of male and female sexual orientation. Journal of Sex Research 34, 212-222.
45. M Hines, C Brook & G Conway (2004). Androgen and psychosexual development: core gender
identity, sexual orientation and recalled childhood gender role behaviour in women and men with
congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). Journal of Sex Research 41, 75-81.
46. S Hu, A Pattatucci, C Patterson, L Li, D Fulker, S Cherny, L Kruglyak & D Hamer (1998).
Linkage between sexual orientation and chromosome Xq28 in males but not in females. Nature
Genetics 11, 248-256.
47. IHGSC – the International Human Genome Sequencing Consortium (2001). Initial sequencing
and analysis of the human genome. Nature (London) 409, 860-921.
48. W James (2004a). The cause(s) of the fraternal birth order effect in male homosexuality. Journal
of Biosocial Sciences 36, 51-59.
49. W James (2004b). A further note on the causes of the fraternal birth order effect in male
homosexuality. Journal of Biosocial Sciences 36, 61-62.
50. W James (2005). Biological and psychosocial determinants of male and female homosexual
orientation. Journal of Biosocial Sciences 37, 555-567.
51. K Kendler, L Thornton, S Gilman & R Kessler (2000). Sexual orientation in a U.S. national
sample of twin and non-twin sibling pairs. American Journal of Psychiatry 157, 1843-1846.
52. M King & E McDonald (1992). Homosexuals who are twins: a study of 46 probands. British
Journal of Psychiatry 160, 407-409.
53. A Kinsey, W Pomeroy & C Martin (1948). Sexual behavior in the human male. WB Saunders,
Philadelphia & London.
54. J Kirby (2003). A new group-selection model for the evolution of homosexuality. Biology &
Philosophy 18, 683-694.
55. K Kirk, J Bailey, M Dunne & N Martin (2000). Measurement models for sexual orientation in a
community twin sample. Behavior Genetics 30, 345-356.
56 P Koopman, J Gubbay, J Vivian, P Goodfellow & R Lovell-Badge (1991). Male development of
chromosomally female mice transgenic for Sry. Nature 351, 117-120.
57. B Kraemer, T Noll, A Delsignore, G Milos, U Schnyder & U Hepp (2006). Finger length ratio
(2D:4D) and dimensions of sexual orientation. Neuropsychobiology 53, 210-214.
58. R Lancaster (2006). Sex, science and pseudoscience in the public sphere. Identities – Global
Studies in Culture & Power 13, 101-138.
59. S LeVay & D Hamer (1994). Evidence for a biological influence in male homosexuality.
Scientific American 270 (May 1994), 20-25.
60. S Lutchmaya, S Baron-Cohen, P Raggatt, R Knickmeyer & J Manning (2004). 2nd to 4th digit
ratios, fetal testosterone and estradiol. Early Human Development 77, 23-28.
61. S MacCulloch, N Gray, H Phillips, J Taylor & M MacCulloch (2004). Birth order in sex-
offending and aggressive-offending men. Archives of Sexual Behavior 33, 467-474.
62. E Maguire, D Gadian, I Johnsrude, C Good, J Ashburner, R Frackowiak & C Frith (2000).
Navigation-related structural change in the hippocampi of taxi drivers. Proceedings of the
National Academy of Sciences (USA) 97, 4398-4403.
63. J Manning (2002). Digit ratio: a pointer to fertility, behaviour and health. Rutgers University
Press, New Brunswick, USA.
64. N McConaghy, D Hadzi-Pavlovic, C Stevens, V Manicavasagar, N Buhrich & U Vollmer-Conna
(2006). Fraternal birth order and the ratio of homosexual/heterosexual feelings in women and
men. Journal of Homosexuality 51, 161-174.
65. D McFadden, J Loehlin, S Breedlove, R Lippa, J Manning & Q Rahman (2005). A reanalysis of
five studies on sexual oreientation and the relative length of the 2nd and 4th fingers (the 2D:4D
ratio). Archives of Sexual Behavior 34, 341-351.
66. H Meyer-Bahlburg, C Dolezal, S Baker, A Carlson, J Obeid & M New (2004). Prenatal
androgenization affects gender-related behaviour but not gender identity in 5-12-year-old girls
with congenital adrenal hyperplasia. Archives of Sexual Behavior 33, 97-104.
67. E Miller (2000). Homosexuality, birth order and evolution: toward an equilibrium reproductive
economics of homosexuality. Archives of Sexual Behavior 29, 1-34.
68. J Money, M Schwarz & V Lewis (1984). Adult erotosexual status and fetal hormonal
masculinization and demasculinization: 46, XX congenital virilising adrenal hyperplasia and 46,
XY androgen-insensitivity syndrome compared. Psychoneuroendocrinology 9, 405-414.
69. J Morris, C Jordan,& S Breedlove (2004). Brain aromatase: dyed-in-the-wool homosexuality.
Endocrinology 145, 475-477.
70. B Mustanski, M Chivers & J Bailey (2002). A critical review of recent biological research on
human sexual orientation. Annual Review of Sex Research 13, 89-140.
71. B Mustanski, M DuPree, C Nievergelt, S Bocklandt, N Schork & D Hamer (2005). A
genomewide scan of male sexual orientation. Human Genetics 116, 272-278.
72. M Noordam & S Repping (2006). The human Y chromosome: a masculine chromosome. Current
Opinions in Genetics & Development 16, 225-232.
73. B Pause (2004). Are androgen steroids acting as human pheromones? Physiology & Behavior
74. E Pennisi (2007). Working the (gene count) numbers: finally, a firm answer? Science 316, 1113.
75. Q Rahman (2005). The association between the fraternal birth order effect in male homosexuality
and other markers of sexual orientation. Biological Letters 22, 393-395.
76. Q Rahman & M Hull (2005). An empirical test of the kin selection hypothesis for male
homosexuality. Archives of Sexual Behavior 34, 461-467.
77. Q Rahman & G Wilson (2003). Born gay? The psychobiology of human sexual orientation.
Personality and Individual Differences 34, 1337-1382.
78. G Rice, C Anderson, N Risch & G Ebers (1999). Male homosexuality: absence of linkage to microsatellite markers at Xq28. Science 284, 665- 667.
79. G Robinson (2004). Beyond Nature and Nurture. Science 304, 397-399.
80. A Safron, B Barch, J Bailey, D Gitelman, T Parrish & P Reber (2007). Neural correlates of
sexual arousal in homosexual and heterosexual men. Behavioral Neuroscience 121, 237-248.
81. I Savic, H Berglund & P Lindstrom (2005). Brain response to putative pheromones in homosexual
men. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA) 102, 7356-7361.
82. V Savolainen & L Lehmann (2007). Genetics and bisexuality. Nature (London) 445, 158-159.
83. A Servin, A Nordenstrom, A Larsson & G Bohlin (2003). Prenatal androgens and gender-typed
behaviour: a study of girls with mild and severe forms of congenital adrenal hyperplasia.
Developmental Psychology 39, 440-450.
84. R Spitzer (2003). Can some gay men and lesbians change their sexual orientation? 200
participants reporting a change from homosexual to heterosexual orientation? Archives of Sexual
Behavior 32, 403-417.
85. R Weksberg, C Shuman, O Caluseriu, A C Smith, Y-L Fei, J Nishikawa, T L Stockley, L Best, D
Chitayat, A Olney, E Ives, A Schneider, T H Bestor, M Li, P Sadowski, & J Squire (2002).
Discordant KCNQ10T1 imprinting in sets of monozygotic twins discordant for Beckwith-
Wiedemann syndrome. Human. Molecular Genetics 11 1317-1325.
86. F Whitam, M Diamond & J Martin (1993). Homosexual orientation in twins: a report on 61 pairs
and three triplet sets. Archives of Sexual Behavior 22, 187-206
87. Y-H Yang, E Yang, J Kwon, I Kim & Y Park (2006). Prenatal diagnosis of Trisomy 21 with fetal
cells in maternal blood using comparative genomic hybridisation. Fetal Diagnosis & Therapy
Due to limited space the book carries abbreviated references - here they are set out in full. They are arranged in the order they appear in the book and correspond to the numbering in the book.
1. CRD report 4. Undertaking systematic reviews of research on effectiveness: CRD's guidance for those carrying out or commissioning reviews.
Centre for Reviews and Dissemination, University of York.(March 2001)
2. Stein, E. The Mismeasure of Desire: the Science, Theory and Ethics of Sexual Orientation. Oxford, New York, Oxford University Press. (19990.
3. Savin-Williams, R. C. and Ream, G. L. Prevalence and Stability of Sexual Orientation Components During Adolescence and Young Adulthood. Archives of Sexual Behavior 36, 385-394. (2007).
4. Baumeister, R.F. "Gender Differences in Erotic Plasticity: the Female Sex Drive As Socially Flexible and Responsive.[See Comment]. [Review] [170 Refs]," Psychological Bulletin.126(3):347-74; discussion 385-9, (2000).
5. Eskin, M., Kaynak-Demir, H., and Demir, S. "Same-Sex Sexual Orientation, Childhood Sexual Abuse, and Suicidal Behavior in University Students in Turkey," Archives of Sexual Behavior.34(2):185-95, (2005).
6. Black D et al., "Demographics of the Gay and Lesbian Population in the United States: Evidence From Available Systematic Data Sources. [Review] [16 Refs]," Demography.37(2):139-54, (2000).
7. Wichstrom, L. and Hegna, K. "Sexual Orientation and Suicide Attempt: a Longitudinal Study of the General Norwegian Adolescent Population," Journal of Abnormal Psychology.112(1):144-51, (2003).
8. Laumann EO, Gagnon JH Michael RT Michaels S. The Social Organisation of Sexuality. The University of Chicago Press. (1994)
9. Troiden, R. R. Gay and Lesbian Identity: A Sociological Analysis. New York, General Hall. (1988)
10. Risman, B. and Pepper, S. Sociological Research on Male and Female Homosexuality. Annual Review of Sociology 14, 125-147. (1988).
11. Herdt, G. Issues in the Cross-Cultural Study of Homosexuality. Sexual Orientation: Toward Biological Understanding (Eds Ellis, L.and Ebertz, L) , 65-82.. Westport, Conn, Praeger. (1996)
12. Kumar, B and Ross, M. W. Sexual Behaviour and HIV Infection risks in Indian Homosexual Men: A Cross-Cultural Comparison. International Journal of STD and AIDS 2, 442-444. (1991).
13. Naz Foundation. Sexual Health of Males in South Asia Who Have Sex with Other Males: Results from Situational Assessments of Four Cities in India and Bangladesh. London (2000).
14. Sanders, A. J. G. M. "Homosexuality and the Law: A Gay Revolution in South Africa?," Journal of African Law 41, no. 1: 100-108. (1997)
15. Wainberg, M. L. et al. Science and the Nuremberg Code: A Question of Ethics and Harm. Archives of Sexual Behavior 32(5), 455-457. 2003.
16. Kinsey, A. C., Pomeroy, W. B., and Martin, C. E. Sexual Behavior in the Human Male. . Philadelphia, PA, Saunders. (1948)
17. American Psychological Association. Answers To Your Questions About Sexual Orientation and Homosexuality. . Washington, DC, American Psychological Association. (1998)
18. French S. A. et al., "Sexual Orientation and Prevalence of Body Dissatisfaction and Eating Disordered Behaviors: a Population-Based Study of Adolescents," International Journal of Eating Disorders., no. 2: 119-126. (1919)
19. Garofalo R. et al., "Sexual Orientation and Risk of Suicide Attempts Among a Representative Sample of Youth," Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine.153(5):487-93, (1999).
20. Stokes JP, Venable, P and McKirnan, D J. Comparing Gay and Bisexual Men on Sexual Behavior, Condom Use, and Psychosocial Variables Related to HIV/AIDS. Archives of Sexual Behaviour 26, 4, 383-397 (2004)
21. Diamond, L. M. "Sexual Identity, Attractions, and Behavior Among Young Sexual-Minority Women Over a 2-Year Period," Developmental Psychology.36(2):241-50, (2000).
22. Rosario, M., Meyer-Bahlburg, H. F., and Hunter, J. et al. The Psychosexual Developement of Urban Lesbian, Gay and Bisexual Youths. Journal of Sex Research 33, 113-126. (1996).
23. Rust, P.C. "The Politics of Sexual Identity - Sexual Attraction and Behavior Among Lesbian and Bisexual Women," Social problems.39(4) 386. (1992)
24. Kinnish, K. K., Strassberg, D. S. and Turner, C. W. "Sex Differences in the Flexibility of Sexual Orientation: a Multidimensional Retrospective Assessment," Archives of Sexual Behavior.34(2):173-83, (2005).
25. Sell, R. L. Wells, J. A. and Wypij, D. "The Prevalence of Homosexual Behavior and Attraction in the United States, the United Kingdom and France: Results of National Population-Based Samples," Archives of Sexual Behavior.24(3):235-48, (1995).
26. Dickson, N., Paul, C. and Herbison, P. "Same-Sex Attraction in a Birth Cohort: Prevalence and Persistence in Early Adulthood," Social Science & Medicine.56(8):1607-15, (2003).
27. Spitzer, R. L. "Can Some Gay Men and Lesbians Change Their Sexual Orientation? 200 Participants Reporting a Change From Homosexual to Heterosexual Orientation," Arch.Sex Behav. 32, no. 5: 403-417. (2003)
28. Throckmorton, W "Initial Empirical and Clinical Findings Concerning the Change Process for Ex-Gays," Professional Psychology: Research and Practice 33: 242-248. (2002)
29. Besen, W R. Anything but Straight: Unmasking the Scandals and Lies Behind the Ex-Gay Myth. Binghampton, NY, Harrington Park Press. (2003)
30. Gonsiorek J. & Weinrich J. (Eds.). Homosexuality: Research implications for public policy (pp. 115-136). Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage. 1991.
31. King M and Bartlett A British Psychiatry and Homosexuality. British Journal of Psychiatry.175:106-13, (1999).
32. Freud, S. Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality Strachey James (translated). New York, Basic Books.(1905).
33. Bieber, I. Homosexuality: A Psychoanalytic study of Male Homosexuality. . New York, Basic Books. (1962)
34. Moberley, Elizabeth. Homosexuality: A New Christian Ethic. Lutterworth Press, Cambridge (2006).
35. Lewes, K. Psychoanalysis and Male Homosexuality. New York, Simon and Schuster. (1988)
36. Socarides, C.W. Some Problems Encountered in the Psychoanalytic Treatment of Overt Male Homosexuality. American Journal of Psychotherapy.33(4):506-20, (1979).
37. Medinger, A. Growth into Manhood: Resuming the Journey. Random House. (2000).
38. Bem, D. Exotic Becomes Erotic: a Developmental Theory of Sexual Orientation. Psychological Review 103, 320-335. (1996).
39. Ruse, M. Homosexuality: a Philosophical Enquiry. New York, Blackwell. (2007).
40. Webster, R. Why Freud Was Wrong: Sin, Science and Psychoanalyis. US, Harper Collins/Basic Books. (1995).
41. Isay, R. A. Being Homosexual: Gay Men and their Development. Toronto, Canada, Collins. (1989).
42. Bell A, Weinberg M, and Hammersmith S. Sexual Preference: Its Development in Men and Women. . Bloomington, Indiana University Press. (1981)
43. Bailey M J and Zucker K J. Childhood Sex-typed Behaviour and Sexual Orientation: a Conceptual Analysis and Quantitative Review. Developmental Psychology 31, 43-55. (1995)
44. Green, R. The 'Sissy Boy' Syndrome and the Development of Homosexuality. New Haven, Yale University Press. (1987)
45. Frisch M and Hviid A. Childhood Family Correlates of Heterosexual and Homosexual Marriages: A National Cohort Study of Two Million Danes. Archives of Sexual Behavior 35, 533-547. (2006).
46. Fergusson, D.M., Horwood, L.J. and Beautrais, A.L. Is Sexual Orientation Related to Mental Health Problems and Suicidality in Young People? Archives of General Psychiatry 56,10: 876-880. (1999)
47. Bearman PS, Burckner H. Opposite-Sex Twins and Aslescent Same-Sex Attraction. American Jounral of Sociology 107, 1179-1205. (2002).
48. Byne W. and Parsons B. "Human Sexual Orientation. The Biologic Theories Reappraised," Archives of General Psychiatry 50, no. 3: 228-239. (1993)
49. Gold, S and Neufeld, I.S. "A Learning Approach to the Treatment of Homosexuality," Behaviour Research & Therapy.3:201-4, (1965).
50. Herzen M (Ed). Progress in Behavioural Modification. V.6. New York, Academic Press. (1978)
51. Seligman, M. E. P. What You Can Change and What You Can't: The Complete Guide to Successful Self Improvement. Knopf. (1994)
52. Byrd A. D. and Nicolosi, J. A Meta-Analytic Review of Treatment of Homosexuality. Psychological Reports.90 (3 Pt 2):1139-52, (2002).
53. American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (4th Edition, Text Revised) of Mental Disorders. Washington, American Psychiatric Association. (2000).
54. Bancroft, J. Homosexuality and the Medical Profession: A Behaviourists View. Journal Medical Ethics 1, 176-180. (1975).
55. American Psychiatric Association. Position Statement on Therapies Focused on Attempts to Change Sexual Orientation (Reparative or Conversion Therapies). American Journal of Psychiatry 157, 1719-1721. (2000).
56. Bayer, R. Homosexuality and American Psychiatry: The Politics of Diagnosis. . New York, Basic Books. (1981)
Ref Type: Generic
57. Drescher, J. An Interview with Robert.L.Spitzer. In: Drescher, J., Zucker, K.J (Eds). Ex-Gay Research. Analyzing the Spitzer Study. 323-339.. Binghampton, NY, Harrington Park Press. (2007)
58. Fulford, K W M, Thornton T, and Graham G. Values in Psychiatric Diagnosis. In: Oxford Textbook of Philosophy and Psychiatry. 565-583. Oxford, New York, Oxford University Press. (2006).
Ref Type: Generic
59. Szasz, T. S. The Manufacture of Madness: A Comparative Study of the Inquisition and the Mental Health Movement. Syracuse University Press.( 2007).
60. World Health Organisation. International Classification of Diseases (10th Edition). Geneva, World Health Organisation. (1992).
61. Moser, C and Kleinplatz, P J. Journal of Psychology & Human Sexuality. 17, 3-4, 91-109. (2006).
62. Bieschke, K. J, McClanahan, M., Tozer, E., Grzegorek, J. L., and Park, J. Programmatic Research on the Treatment of Lesbian, Gay and Bisexual Clients: the Past, the Present and the Course for the Future. In: Handbook of Counselling and Psychotherapy with Lesbian, Gay and Bisexual Clients, Eds. Perez, R.M., DeBord, K.A., Bieschke, K.J. 309-335. Washington DC, American Psychological Association. (2000).
63. Zucker, K. J. The Politics and Science of "Reparative Therapy". Archives of Sexual Behavior.32(5):399-402, (2003).
64. Craig, J C, Irwig, M L, and Stockler, M R. http://www.mja.com.au/public/issues/174_05_050301/craig/craig.html. 2001.
65. Sackett, D L, Rosenberg, W M C, Muir Gray, J A, Brian Haynes, R, and Scott Richardson, W. http://www.cebm.net/?o=1014. 1996.
66. Bieber, Irving. Homosexuality: A Psychoanalytic study of Male Homosexuality. New York, Basic Books.
67. Socarides, C. W. Homosexuality. 1978. New York, Jason Aronson.
68. Adams, H. E and Sturgis, E. T. Status of Behavioural Reorientation Techniques in the Modification of Homosexuality: A Review. Psychological Bulletin 84, 1171-1188. (1977).
69. Schwartz, M. F and Masters, W. H. The Masters and Johnson treatment program for dissatisfied homosexual men. American Journal of Psychiatry 141, 173-181. (1984).
70. Nicolosi J., Byrd, D. and Potts, R. W. Retrospective Self-Reports of Changes in Homosexual Orientation: a Consumer Survey of Conversion Therapy Clients Psychological Reports.86(3 Pt 2):1071-8, (2000).
71. Schaeffer, K. W., Hyde, R. A., Kroencke, T., McCormick, B., and Nottebaum, L. Religiously Motivated Sexual Orientation Change. Journal of Psychology and Christianity 19, 61-70. (2000).
72. Schaeffer, K. W., Nottebaum, L., Smith, P., Dech, K., and Krawczyk, J. Religiously Motivated Sexual Orientation Change: A Follow-Up Study. Journal of Psychology and Theology 27, 329-337. (1999).
73. Hartmann, L. Too Flawed: Don't Publish. Archives of Sexual Behavior 32 (5), 436-438. (2003).
74. Yarhouse, M. A. How Spitzer's Study Gives a Voice to the Disenfranchised Within a Minority Group. Arch.Sex Behav. 32(5), 462-463. (2003).
75. Sandfort, T. G. M. Studying Sexual Orientation Change: A Methodological Review of the Spitzer Study. Journal of Gay and Lesbian Psychotherapy 7(3), 15-29. (2003).
76. Herek, G. M. Evaluating Interventions to Alter Sexual Orientation. In: Drescher, J., Zucker, K.J. (Eds) Ex-Gay Research. Analysing the Spitzer Study. 131-136. Binghampton, NY, Harrington Park Press. (2006).
77. Beckstead, L. A. Understanding the Self-Reports of Reparative Therapy 'successes'. Archives of Sexual Behavior 32(5), 421-423. (2003).
78. Cohen, K. M. and Savin-Williams, R. C. Are Converts to Be Believed? Assessing Sexual Orientation 'Conversions'. Archives of Sexual Behavior 32(5), 427-429. (2003).
79. Hershberger, S. L. Guttman Scalability Confirms the Effectiveness of Reparative Therapy. Archives of Sexual Behavior 32(5), 440. (2003).
80. Rind, B. Sexual Orientation Change and Informed Consent for Reparative Therapy. Archives of Sexual Behavior 32(5), 447-449. (2003).
81. Krueger, R. B. A Positive View of Spitzer's Research and an Argument for Further Research. Archives of Sexual Behavior 32(5), 443-444. (2003).
82. Gonsiorek, J. The Use of Diagnostic Concepts in Working with Gay and Lesbian Populations. Journal of Homosexuality 7, 9-20. (1982).
83. Jones, S. L and Yarhouse, M. Ex-Gays: A Longitudinal Study of Religiously Motivated Change in Sexual Orientation. . Downers Grove, IL, IVP. (2007)
84. Sell, R. L. Defining and Measuring Sexual Orientation: a Review. Archives of Sexual Behavior.26(6):643-58, (1997).
85. Shidlo, A, Drescher, J, and Psyd Schroeder, M. Sexual Conversion Therapy: Ethical, Clinical and Research Perspectives. Haworth Press. (2001). 86. D. C. Haldeman, "The Practice and Ethics of Sexual Orientation Conversion Therapy. [Review] [43 Refs]," Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology.62(2):221-7, (1994).
87. Haldeman, D. C. Therapeutic Anecdotes: Helping Gay and Bisexual Men Recover from Conversion Therapies. Journal of Gay and Lesbian Psychotherapy 5(3/4), 119-132. (2002).
88. Shidlo A and Schroeder, M Changing Sexual Orientation: A Consumers' Report Professional Psychology: Research and Practice 33: 249-259. (2002)
89. Green, T., Harrison, B., and Innes, J. Not For Turning: An Enquiry into the Ex-Gay Movement. Leeds, UK, Authors. (1996).
90. Meyer, I. H. Prejudice, Social Stress, and Mental Health in Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Populations: Conceptual Issues and Research Evidence. 227 Refs Psychological Bulletin. 129(5):674-97, (2003).
91. Wakefield, J. Sexual Reorientation Therapy: Is It Ever Ethical? Can It Ever Change Sexual Orientation? Archives of Sexual Behavior 32, 457-459. (2003).
92. Yarhouse M. A. and Throckmorton W. Ethical Issues in Attempts to Ban Reorientation Therapies. Psychotherapy. 39(1)(Pp 66-75), 2002. (2002).
93. Haldeman, D. C. When Sexual and Religious Orientation Collide: Considerations in Working with Conflicted Same Sex Attracted Male Clients. The Counselling Psychologist 32, 691-715. (2004).
94. Lasser J. S. and Gottlieb M. C. Treating Patients Distressed Regarding Their Sexual Orientation: Clinical and Ethical Alternatives Professional Psychology: Research and Practice 35: 194-200. (2004)
95. Beckstead, A. L. and Morrow, S. L. Mormon Clients' Experiences of Conversion Therapy: The Need for a New Treatment Approach. The Counselling Psychologist 32, 651-690. (2004).
96. Yarhouse, M. and Burkett, L. A. An Inclusive Response to LGB and Conservative Religious Persons: The Case of Same-Sex Attraction and Behaviour. Professional Psychology - Research & Practice 33, 235-241. (2002).
The Anglican Communion does not recommend or endorse any of the submissions. The resources provided are intended to enable mutual listening and are made available for study, discussion and reflection within each member Church of the Communion as requested by Resolution 12 of ACC – 13.
Mario Bergner – Pastoral Considerations for Homosexuality
A Submission from a Special Interest Group in the Royal College of Psychiatrists (UK)
Jack Drescher - Sexual Conversion Therapies
Wayne Bessen – The ‘Ex-gay’ Myth
Michelle Wolkomir - Gay and Ex-Gay Paths to Resolving the Dilemma of Homosexuality in Christianity
Gillian Cooke and Alan Sheard - Created by God, Christianity and homosexuality in the 21st Century
Dawn McDonald - Concerning Pastoral Care to the Same-sex Attracted